EUTHYMIUS, yu-thî'mî-us, ZIGABENUS (ZIGADENUS, ZYGADENUS) : Byzantine theologian; d. near Constantinople after 1118. Of his life few details are known, except that he was a monk at a cloister in the vicinity of Constantinople. A Latin translation of his commentary on the Psalms was published by Philippus Saulus (Verona, 1530); the Greek original was edited by A. Bongiovanni in the fourth volume of the works of Theophylact (Venice, 1754-63). The commentary on the Gospels appeared in a Latin translation by Johannes Hintenius (Louvain, 1544), the Greek text remained unpublished until C. F. Mattäi's edition (Leipsic, 1792); the commentary on the Pauline Epistles was first edited by N. Kalogeras at Athens in 1887. Other exegetical writings on the Catholic Epistles, letters, an elegy on the death of Eustathius of Thessalonica, and a controversy with a Saracen philosopher exist only in manuscript. In his commentary on the Gospels, which is superior to that on the Psalms, Euthymius follows in general the ancient authorities, especially Chrysostom, although he shows some independence. Allegorical and mystical interpretations are occasionally borrowed. On the whole, he is inferior in exegetical precision to Theophylact.
The dogmatic work of Euthymius was written at the instance of the emperor Alexius and from him received its name of "Dogmatic Panoply" (ed. P. F. Zinus, Venice, 1555; M. H. Gregoras, Tergovist, 1711). It consists of two sections, or "titles," and of twenty-four others devoted to the refutation of various heresies. The accounts of the Bogomiles, Massilians, Armenians, Paulicians, and Mohammedans are of value, despite falsehoods and perversions. The attack on the Roman Catholic doctrines is concerned chiefly with the procession of the Holy Ghost and the use of unleavened bread. Much of the book is a mere compilation of the Church Fathers down to John of Damascus, and is important solely as containing excerpts from such obscure authors as Leontius of Byzantium, Anastasius of Sinai, Theodore the Studite, and Maximus.