PROCOPIUS OF CÆSAREA: Byzantine historian; b. at Cæsarea in Palestine toward the close of the fifth century; d. probably after 562. After 527 he was the legal companion and secretary of Belisarius in the campaigns in Persia, Africa, and Italy, so that as an eye-witness he described in eight books the wars against the Persians, Vandals, and Goths. More important for ecclesiastical conditions were his six books, Peri ktismatôn (De dificiis Justiniani imperatoris, Paris, 1663, Eng. transl., On Justinian's Buildings, London, 1886); his Anecdota contain only scandals concerning Justinian, Theodora, Belisarius and his wife, and the entire court. Theologically he was orthodox; to him Christ was God, and Mary the mother of God. He was plainly disinclined to dogmatic partizanship, and Christian and classical elements appear unfused in his writings. As a historian he is of the highest importance. His works have been edited by L. Dindorf in CSHB (3 vols., Bonn., 1833-38); by J. Haury (3 vols., Leipsic, 1905-06); and there is an edition, with Italian translation, of the wars of the Goths by D. Comparetti (2 vols., Rome, 1895-1896), and a German translation in Geschichtsschreiber der deutschen Vorzeit (6th year, vols. ii.-iii., by D. Costi, Leipsic, 1885).