PIPER, KARL WILHELM FERDINAND: German church historian; b. at Stralsund (120 m. n.w. of Berlin) May 7, 1811; d. at Berlin Nov. 28, 1889. He studied theology at the universities of Berlin and Göttingen, 1829-33; was tutor in theology at the latter institution, 1833-40; privat-docent in church history at the University of Berlin, 1842; and associate professor after 1842. As church historian he belonged to the school of Neander. His earlier literary activity dealt with chronology and resulted in the publication of the "Evangelical Calendar" (1850-70), in which he substituted for the names of saints, those of Christian worthies, and furnished annually biographical sketches. His principal pursuit became the investigation of Christian monuments of art, as a source for church history. The first important product appeared as the first part of the projected work, Mythologie und Symbolik der Christlichen Kunst (2 vols., Weimar, 1847-51) setting forth the influence of pagan mythology upon Christianity. The intended second part was never prepared. His next great work was Einleitung in die monumentale Theologie (Gotha, 1867). Other works are: Ueber den christlichen Bilderkreis (Berlin, 1852); and Die Kalendarien und Martyrologien der Angelsachsen (1862). Piper does not treat art for art's sake; form and style are almost ignored. He always seeks to present the content for his specific purpose. He was the founder of the Christian museum at the University of Berlin and its director from 1849 till his death.