FRIEDRICH, JOHANN: German Old Catholic; b. at Poxdorf June 5, 1836. He studied in Bamberg and Munich, and was ordained to the priesthood of the Roman Catholic Church in 1859. He was chaplain of Markscheinfeld until 1862, when he became privat-docent at Munich. In 1865 he was appointed associate professor in the same university and in 1869 was called to Rome as a councilor in the Vatican council. He refused to accept the dogma of papal infallibility and in 1871 was excommunicated and was also deprived of his benefice for violating a fundamental principle of the Church in giving the sacrament to a colleague who had fallen under ecclesiastical condemnation. Notwithstanding the protests of the bishops, he was promoted to the rank of full professor in Munich in 1872, and in 1874-75 was professor of church history at Bern. He then returned to Munich, but in 1882 was transferred, in deference to the protests of the Ultramontane party, from the theological to the philosophical faculty of the university, where he has since been professor of history. He has written Johann Wessel (Regensburg, 1862); Die Lehre des Johann Hus und ihre Bedeutung für die Entwicklung der neueren Zeit (1862); Astrologie und Reformation (Munich, 1864); Das wahre Zeitalter des heiligen Ruperts (Bamberg, 1866); Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands (2 vols., 1867-69); Tagebuch während des vatikanischen Konzils geführt (Nördlingen, 1871); Documenta ad illustrandum concilium Vaticanum (1871); Der Mechanismus der vatikanischen Religion (Innsbruck, 1876); Beiträge zur Kirchen-Geschichte des achtzehnten Jahrhunderts (Munich, 1876); Geschichte des vatikanischen Konzils (3 vols., Bonn, 1877-87); Zur ältesten Geschichte des Primats in der Kirche (1879); Beiträge zur Geschichte des Jesuiten-Ordens (Munich, 1881); Die Konstantin-Schenkung (Nördlingen, 1889); Johann Adam Möller, der Symboliker (Munich, 1894); Jakob Froschhammer (Fürth, 1896); and Ignaz von Döllinger (3 parts, Munich, 1899-1901). He likewise published a revised edition of J. J. I. von Döllinger's Janus under the title Das Pabsttum (Munich, 1892) and prepared the second edition of the same theologian's Pabstfabeln des Mittelalters (1890).