FREPPEL, frep” pel’ , CHARLES ÉMILE: French Roman Catholic prelate; b. at Ehnheim (14 m. n. of Schlettstadt), Alsace, June 1, 1827; d. at Paris Dec. 22, 1891. He studied at Strasburg and was ordained priest in 1849. After teaching philosophy at a Carmelite school in Paris and being director of the episcopal college at Strasburg, he became one of the staff of Ste. Geneviève at Paris in 1853 and dean in 1867. From 1854 to 1870 he was professor of sacred eloquence in the faculty of Roman Catholic theology at Paris. In 1869 he was called to Rome to assist in the preliminary arrangements for the Vatican Council, and was a pronounced adherent of the dogma of papal infallibility. He was consecrated bishop of Angers in 1870, and was a vigorous prelate, being active in organizing pilgrimages to Paray-le-Monial, Puy, and elsewhere, and in founding a Catholic university at Angers. In 1880 he was returned as deputy from Brest, and became the leader of the clerical party. He attracted great notice by his opposition to the government, and by his outspoken ultramontanism, as well as by his anti-German sentiments. He favored the expeditions to Tunis (1881), Tonkin (1883), and Madagascar (1885), but his interference in Prussian ecclesiastical affairs was so active that it was suppressed by the French government. His numerous works include: Les Pères apostoliques et leer époque (Paris, 1859); Les Apologistes chrétiens au deuxième siècle (1860); St. Irénée (1861); Examen critique de la vie de Jésus-Christ par M. Renan (1863); Conférences sur la divinité de Jésus-Christ (1863); Tertullien (2 vols., 1864); St. Cyprien (1865); Clément d'Alexandrie (1865); Examen critique des apôtres de M. Renan (1866); Origène (2 vols., 1868); Œuvres pastorales et oratoires (9 vols., 1869-94); Œuvres polémiques (9 vols., 1874-88); L'Église et les ouvriers (1876); Les devoirs du chrétien dans la vie civile (1876); and La Vie chrétienne (1879). After his death appeared his Bossuet et l'éloquence sacrée au dix-septième siècle (2 vols., 1893); Sermons inédits (2 vols., 1895), and Les Origines du christianisme (2 vols., 1903).