FAIRCHILD, JAMES HARRIS: Congregationalist; b. at Stockbridge, Mass., Nov. 25, 1817; d. at Oberlin, 0., Mar. 19, 1902. He was graduated at Oberlin College in 1838, and in it was successively tutor (1838), professor of Latin and Greek (1842), of mathematics (1847), moral philosophy and systematic theology (1858), and president (1866-89). From 1889 till becoming emeritus professor (1895) he taught systematic theology in Oberlin Theological Seminary. As a teacher he was clear, philosophical, and impressive. As a theologian he succeeded Charles Grandison Finney, with whom he agreed in general, though not without differences springing from his strong individuality. He taught a "new school" Calvinism, in which the freedom of the will was emphasized to the essential modification of the system. The general cast of his system was practical and concrete rather than metaphysical; but he maintained the divinity of Christ and the trinity, the atonement (governmental theory), and the endless future punishment of the incorrigibly wicked. He maintained also the ethical doctrine to which earlier Oberlin had given prominence, the simplicity of moral action, but minimized the doctrine of perfection which had been associated with it, teaching the possibility of perfection in this life, though laying no emphasis upon it, and not asserting its probability. The foundation of moral obligation he found in the essential worth of sentient being, in immediate perception of this, and in the intuitive affirmation of obligation to promote universal well-being, by conscience. But his greatest service to his college was as an administrator, being distinguished for his business capacity and good sense, his urbanity and patience, his entire unselfishness, his reliability, his interest in individuals, his extraordinary skill in handling men, and his power to bring things to pass, so under him the institution throve greatly. He edited the memoirs of President Finney (New York, 1876), and the latter's Systematic Theology (Oberlin, 1878). His other publications include Moral Philosophy; or, The Science of Obligation (New York, 1869); Woman's Right to the Ballot (1870; an affirmative statement); Oberlin, the Colony and the College (Oberlin, 1883); Elements of Theology, Natural and Revealed (1892).