EUGENIUS, yu-j î'ni-us: The name of four popes.
Eugenius I.: Pope 654-657. He was a Roman and was chosen pope in accordance with the command of the emperor and the exarch to select a successor to Martin I., who had been banished (see MARTIN I.; MONOTHELITES). He was consecrated Aug. 10, 654. Eugenius had already been apocrisiarius in Constantinople and thus seemed to be fit to bring about a reconciliation with the imperial court in the Monothelite controversy. The apocrisiarii whom he sent to Constantinople concluded peace with Pyrrhus, the patriarch, and under the influence of Peter, the trusted friend of Pyrrhus, the dispute between the Monothelites and Dyothelites seemed to be approaching its end. When Peter was appointed patriarch of Constantinople in 655, he sent, according to custom, an official letter to Eugenius, announcing his election, which contained no orthodox utterances on the "operations and wills" of Christ; therefore the monks of Rome, fearing the invasion of heterodoxy, protested, and clergy and people took their side. Eugenius was forced to promise to repel the approaches of Constantinople, and the hope of reconciliation was frustrated. He died June 2 or 3, 657.
Eugenius II.: Pope 824-827. After the death of Paschalis I. the people of Rome chose as their candidate for the vacancy the deacon Laurentius. But the nobility finally gained the victory, and their choice, Eugenius, archpriest of Santa Sabina, was consecrated and enthroned as Eugenius II. June 6, 824. The emperor Louis acknowledged him, and sent his son Lothair to Rome to settle existing difficulties. The points settled between Lothair and the pope were, in the main, four: (1) the annulment of illegal confiscations which had taken place under the late popes; (2) regulation of the administration of justice and suppression of brigandage; (3) regulation of the relation of subjects to the Frankish empire; (4) regulation of papal elections. The political supremacy of the emperor over Rome was emphasized by Lothair in every respect. Each newly elected pope had to avow his faithfulness to the emperor before consecration. Nevertheless, Lothair considered the wishes of all parties, the people, the nobility, and the papal court, as far as possible and thus his mission had the desired success; peace and justice were secured for a number of years in Rome. But while the young Lothair tried to emphasize the Frankish supremacy, the old emperor yielded to the pope the general administration of ecclesiastical affairs. In the controversy concerning pictures in the church (824-826) which was initiated by Emperor Michael II. of Byzantium, the Frankish emperor conceded all authority to the pope. At a synod in Rome, in 826, it was manifest that the papacy had now seized the reins of church government. The pontificate of Eugenius II. makes, at least ecclesiastically, an important advance in the emancipation of the papacy from the Frankish empire.
Eugenius III.: Disorders in Rome. Pope 1145-53. He was a Pisan by birth, Bernard by name, had studied under the great Bernard at Clairvaux, and was appointed by him abbot of the Cistercian monastery of St. Athanasius near Rome; he was also a cardinal. When Pope Lucius II. died suddenly, Feb. 15, 1145, in the midst of his struggle with the Roman Senate (see Lucius II.), the cardinals immediately elected Bernard his successor, and he was enthroned in the Lateran as Eugenius III., all on the same day. Two days later the senatorial party compelled him to leave the city. A sentence of excommunication pronounced by him against the patrician Pierleone had no effect, and Bernard of Clairvaux, who interceded for him, was unable to pacify the Romans; nor yet could the pope induce King Conrad III. of Germany to take arms against the insurgent Romans. Not until Christmas, was Eugenius able to reenter Rome, after concluding a treaty of peace with the senatorial party, wherein he recognized the Roman Republic under that party's authority. A few weeks later, however, he was compelled once again to forsake the Lateran.
The Second Crusade. At this time Eugenius succeeded in assuming the leadership in a matter which concerned all Western Christendom. In consequence of the conquest of Edessa by the Emir Zengi of Mosul (Christmas, 1144), the Christian seigniories in the East were gravely imperiled, while from Jerusalem itself there came urgent appeals for help; furthermore an Armenian embassy opened up some prospect of a submission of the Armenian Church to the Roman See. The interest of Eugenius III. in behalf of the East was so strongly aroused that on Dec. 1, 1145, he issued the encyclical Quantum prædecessores summoning the king, the nobility and the people of France to take up the cross, and assuring them of ecclesiastical rewards the same as on the First Crusade. This appeal had a brilliant sequel. Louis VII. of France, who had long projected a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, was promptly ready; and even Conrad III. of Germany promised, at the Imperial Diet of Speyer, Dec. 27, 1146, to support the cross. That the appeal resulted so effectually was really due to Bernard of Clairvaux (q.v.). But the pope profited by it, as is manifest above all in connection with the synod convened at Reims on Mar. 21, 1148, and attended by more than four hundred bishops. Among the notable measures then passed (the acts are not preserved) is the declaration of the invalidity of consecration by Anacletus II., and of marriages contracted by priests; as well as the imposition of the interdict upon the residence of an excommunicated person. Eugenius felt his position to be so strengthened that he ventured to suspend the archbishops of Cologne and Mainz, and came near excommunicating King Stephen of England; envoys of King Henry of Germany requested of him a brief to the German clerics exhorting them to stand loyally by his side in his father's absence. While this synod was yet in session the pope received news of the discomfiture of the German and French crusaders; whereupon he hastily returned to Italy.
Arnold of Brescia. Not very favorable conditions awaited him here. Arnold of Brescia (q.v.), who had been received again into the communion of the Church by Eugenius at the beginning of his pontificate, had remained quiet at first; but during the Pope's long absence from Rome, he had resumed his reformatory efforts. By his espousal of magnificent plans for the Eternal City, he had so fascinated the Roman people that a treaty was concluded according to which Arnold pledged himself under oath to defend the Roman Republic, and the people on their side promised to support him. All the attempts of Eugenius to break this bond between Arnold and the Romans were ineffectual. Nor did he succeed, at the close of 1149 and with the aid of King Roger of Sicily, in subduing the Roman Republic by force of arms.
Relations with Germany and France. This alliance with the Norman king also exercised an unfavorable influence upon his relations with Conrad of Germany, who, on his side, aroused the pope's suspicion by reason of a compact with the Greek Emperor Manuel. The antipapal party in Rome sought to utilize this tension between Eugenius and Conrad for their own ends, and endeavored to draw the latter over to their side, though without success. When the pope through a treaty with the Roman Senate was able to return to Rome, the relations between pope and king assumed a more favorable turn, since Eugenius supported Conrad in restitution of Duke Wladislav of Poland, his half-sister's husband. However, new tensions arose not long afterward. In France there was an active desire for a new crusade to restore the shattered Christian rule in the East; and because the miscarriage of the last crusade was charged against the Greek Empire, the enterprise was to be directed against this power. But this plan was to be executed only in case Roger of Sicily fought on the side of France; and since this contingency in turn presupposed the neutrality of the German king, the undertaking of the crusade depended upon the problematical success of achieving a reconciliation between Roger and Conrad. The attempt miscarried; and at this juncture Eugenius made a total change of policy, withdrawing his support from the crusading project, and contriving to restore favorable relations with the German king. Their mutual interests drew them still closer together. The pope, unable to master the continually recurring tumults in Rome and again forced to leave the city, desired the king's intervention; and Conrad aspired to the Imperial crown: hence he formed the plan of a march to Rome, which was formally approved by the magnates of the Empire at the Imperial Diet of Würzburg, Sept. 15, 1151, and the preparations were begun; but before the appointed term, Conrad died at Bamberg, Feb. 15, 1152. His successor, Frederick I., Barbarossa, adopted the plan, and the German princes, at a new Imperial Diet at Würzburg (Oct. 13, 1152), swore to support the Roman expedition.
Treaty between Eugenius and Frederick I. Before it was actually started, however, Eugenius came to such terms with the Romans that he could return to Rome, this time cordially received by Senate and people. There he concluded with the envoys of the German king a treaty which proved highly important in the statecraft of the following years; it was ratified by Frederick at Constance, Mar. 23, 1153. The king promised to conclude peace neither with the Romans nor with Roger of Sicily without the approbation of Eugenius or his successors; to subject, so far as he could, the Romans to the pope as they had been subject to him a century past; to defend against every assailant the honor and the regalia of St. Peter as guardian steward of the Roman Church. The pope promised to honor the king as son of St. Peter, to crown him emperor, and to proceed against foes of the Empire with canonical penalties. They promised reciprocally to cede no domain in Italy to the Greek emperor, and if he made an incursion there, to drive him out.
Eugenius died near Tibur July 8, 1153, and was buried in St. Peter's at Rome. His conduct as politician was not without address, and the apprehensions of Bernard of Clairvaux, who dedicated to him the famous tract De consideratione, were not realized. He surrendered naught of the papal authority, and understood how to uphold it. In his manner of life and in his sympathies he constantly showed that he was an old Cistercian. That he failed to master the Roman revolutionary movement is not an evidence of incapacity. It was good fortune for him that he died before the great conflict broke out between Frederick I. and the Papacy.
Eugenius IV. (Gabrielle Condulmieri): Pope 1431-47. He came from a Venetian mercantile family and belonged to the Celestine Order. Although he was still young and none too well equipped for the position, he was chosen to succeed Martin V. on Mar. 3, 1431. The history of his papacy is largely that of the Council of Basel, and his importance is in the fact that to him more than to any one else was due the failure of the council and the whole idea of reform by councils. He summoned the council Mar. 12, 1431, but soon repented, for he realized that it might bring great danger to himself. The distrust between pope and council grew steadily on both sides, and culminated in a bull of the former dissolving the council and action by the latter deposing the pope and the choice of Felix V. (q. v.) as his successor (see BASEL, COUNCIL OF). An event favorable to Eugenius was the union consummated (on paper) in 1439 between the Roman and Greek Churches, whereby his reputation in the West was considerably augmented (see FERRARA-FLORENCE, COUNCIL OF). He also lived to see Germany, which at first had declared itself neutral between pope and council, range itself on his side. In France he could not annul the so-called Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges of 1438 (see CONCORDATS AND DELIMITING BULLS, III., 2), but he succeeded in keeping this important land faithful to his obedience. He died Feb. 23, 1447. His successors praised him for having saved the power of the papacy in difficult times; and by his victory over the council and by the union with the Greeks he did really contribute to the restoration of Ultramontane ideas of the papacy after they had been shaken by the Great Western Schism.