EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND: A society founded in 1882 by Miss Amelia B. Edwards, Sir Erasmus Wilson, and others to carry on systematic and scientific research of ancient Egypt. The success of the undertaking was assured when the promoters obtained the services of the well-known Swiss Egyptologist, Edouard Naville, and the distinguished explorer, W. H. Flinders Petrie (since 1892 Edwards professor of Egyptology, University College, London). The results achieved may be classed under three heads; (1) Biblical, that is throwing light on the Old-Testament narrative; (2) classical, showing the connection between Greece and Egypt at a very early period; (3) purely Egyptian, illustrating the history, religion, arts, and literature of ancient Egypt. During the season of 1882-83 M. Naville excavated the site of Pithom-Succoth and determined the starting-point of the Exodus; the city was built in the reign of Rameses the Great, the oppressor of the Hebrews. In 1883-84 Prof. Petrie excavated Zoan (cf. Num. xiii. 22), but did not reach the Biblical city, as many centuries of later builders had buried it so deep that the cost and labor of reaching it was prohibitive. In the following season Prof. Petrie excavated at Tell Defenneh (the Biblical Tahpanhes), "The Palace of the Jew's Daughter," and found traces of the pavement before the entry of Pharaoh's house (cf. Jer. xliii. 8-10). In 1885 M. Naville identified the location of the Land of Goshen at Saft el-Henneh (cf. Ex. viii. 22). The three chief classical sites are those of Naucratis, Tanis, and Tell Defenneh (Gk. Daphnai). Naucratis was the city in which Psammetichus II. allowed his Greek mercenaries to settle. At Tanis remains of many Roman houses were found; that of a lawyer named Bak-akhiu of c. 174 was especially rich in papyri and objects of the Greco-Roman period. At Tell Defenneh traces of the camp of the Greek mercenaries were found. Other sites excavated have been: the city of Onias and Tell el-Yehudiyeh (“Mound of the Jew”); the great temple of Bubastis, where monuments of the Hyksos, the shepherd kings who ruled in the time of Joseph (see EGYPT), were found; Ahnas el-Medineh, Deir el-Bahari, the great temple of Queen Hatshepsu, and the eleventh-dynasty temple of Mentuhetep adjoining; Deshasheh, Dendereh, and Abydos.
There are two auxiliary branches of the Fund, (1) the Archeological Survey, which copies wall sculptures and the like which have been uncovered and thus are liable to injury; and (2) the GrecoRoman Branch, established to search for papyri. The Archeological Survey has done excellent work at Beni Hasan, el-Bersheh, Saqqareh, Sheikh Said, Deir el-Gebrawi, and el-Amarna. To the excavators of the Greco-Roman Branch, Drs. Grenfell and Hunt, are due the recovery of the "sayings of Jesus" (see AGRAPHA), many portions of the Gospels, as well as invaluable Greek papyri. The principal site worked by the Greco-Roman Branch has been Oxyrhynchus.
Bibliography: The following is a list of the publications of the Fund: I. The Memoirs: 1, for 1883-84, by E. Naville, The Store City of Pithom and the Route of the Exodus; 2, for 1884-85, by W. M. F. Petrie, Tanis, part i.; 3, for 1885-86, by W. M. F. Petrie, Naukratis, part i.; 4, for 1886-87, by E. Naville, Goshen and the Shrine of Saft-el-Henneh; 5, for 1887-88, by W. M. F. Petrie, F. Ll. Griffith and A. S. Murray, Tanis, part ii., Tell Defenneh, and Tell Nebesheh: 6, for 1888-89, by E. A. Gardiner and F. Ll. Griffith, Naukratis, part ii.; 7, extra volume, by E. Naville and F. Ll. Griffith, The City of Onias and the Mound of the Jew; 8, for 1889-90, by E. Naville, Bubastis; 9, extra volume, by F. Ll. Griffith and W. M. F. Petrie, Two Hieroglyphie Papyri from Tanis; 10, for 1890-91, by E. Naville, The Festival Hall of Osorkon II. (Bukastis); ii, for 1891-92, by E. Naville, J. J. Tylor and F. Ll. Griffith, Ahnas el-Medineh, and The Tomb of Paheri at el-Kab; 12 14, 16, 19 and 27, for 1892-95, 1896-97, 1899-1900 and 1904-05, by E. Naville, Deir el-Bahari, Introductory and parts 1. v.; 15, for 1895-96, by W. M. F. Petrie, Deshasheh; 17, for 1897-98, by W. M. F. Petrie, Dendereh; 18, for 1898-99, by W. M. F. Petrie, Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty; 20, extra volume, by W. M. F. Petrie, Diospolis Parva; 21, for 1900-01, by W. M. F. Petrie, The Royal Tombs of th. Earliest Dynasties, part ii.; 22 and 24, for 1901-03 by W. M, F. Petrie, Abydos, parts i-ii.; 23, extra volume, by D. Randall-Maclver, A. C. Mace and F. Ll. Griffith, El-A mrah and Abydos; 25, extra volume, by C. T. Currelly, E. R. Ayrton and A. E. P. Weigall, Abydos, part iii.; 26, for 1903-04, by W. M. F. Petrie, Ehnasya; 28, for 1905-06, by E. Naville and H. H. Hall, The Eleventh Dynasty Temple at Deir el Bahari.
II. The Archeological Survey: 1 2, for 1890-92, by P. E, Newberry and O. W. Fraser, Beni Hasan, parts i-ii.; 3, for 1892-93, by P. E. Newberry, El-Bersheh, part 1.; 4, for 1893-94, by F. Ll. Griffith and P. E. Newberry, El-Bersheh, part ii.; 5 and 7, for 1894-95 and 1896-97, by F. Ll. Griffith, Beni Hasan, parts iii. iv.; 6, for 1895-96, by F. Ll. Griffith, Hieroglyphs from the Collections of the Egypt Exploration Fund; 8-9, for 1897-99, by N. de G. Davies and F. Ll. Griffith, The Mastabah of Ptahhetep and Akhethetep at Saqqareh, parts i. ii.; 10, for 1899-1900, by N. de G. Davies, The Rock Tombs of Sheikh Said; 11-12, for 1900-02, by N. de G. Davies, The Rock Tombs of Deir el-Gebrawi, parts i ii.; 13-15, for 1902-05, The Rock Tombs of el-Amarna, parts i.-iii.
III. Greco-Roman Branch: 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, for 1897-99, 1902-04, 1906-07, by B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt, The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, parts i.-v.; 3, for 1899-1900, by D. G. Hogarth, B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt, Fayum Towns and their Papyri; 4, 1900-02, by B. P. Grenfell, A. S. Hunt and J. G. Smyly, The Tebtunis Papyri; 7, for 1904-06, The Hibeh Papyri.
IV. Annual Archeological Reports on the seasons' work, running from 1890-91 to date.
V. Special publications: B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt, AOΓIA IHΣOY: "Sayings of Our Lord" and New Sayings of Jesus and Fragment of a Lost Gospel; Atlas of Ancient Egypt; Guide to Temple of Detr el-Bahan; W. E. Crum, Coptic Ostraca.