DUFF, ARCHIBALD: English Congregationalist; b. at Fraserburgh (37 m. n. of Aberdeen), Aberdeenshire, Scotland, Sept. 26, 1845. He studied at McGill University, Montreal (B.A., 1864), Andover Theological Seminary (B.D., 1872), and the universities of Halle (1872-74) and Göttingen (1874-75). He was head master of Dunham Academy, Quebec, 1864-65, professor of mathematics in St. Francis College, Richmond, Quebec, 1865-67, and assistant master of the high-school at Montreal 1867-69. He was Biblical lecturer in the Congregational College, Montreal, 1875-76, temporary professor of Hebrew in McGill College, 1876-77, and mathematical lecturer in the same institution 1876-78. Since 1878 he has been professor of Old Testament theology in the United College (Congregational), Bradford, Yorkshire. He was chairman of the Yorkshire Congregational Union in 1893, and a city councilor of Bradford in 1904-06. In theology he is an exponent of the strict scientific and historical study of Hebrew religion and Christianity. He was coeditor of the Bibliotheca Sacra in 1874-94, and has written Old Testament Theology (2 vols., London, 1891-1900); Hebrew Grammar (1901); Hebrew Theology and Ethics (1902); First and Second Esdras, in The Temple Apocrypha (1903); and Abraham and the Patriarchal Age (1903).