DRUMMOND, JAMES: Unitarian; b. at Dublin May 14, 1835. He studied at Trinity College, Dublin (B.A., 1855), and Manchester New College, London (1856-59), and after being assistant minister with William Gaskell at Cross Street. Chapel, Manchester, 1859-69, was appointed professor of New Testament divinity in Manchester New College, which was removed to Oxford in 1889 and called Manchester College in 1893. From 1885 to 1906 he was also principal of the college, but retired from both positions in 1906. He describes himself as a "liberal Christian." He has written Spiritual Religion (sermons; London, 1870); The Jewish Messiah (1877); Introduction to the Study of Theology (1884); Philo Judæus, or the Jewish-Alexandrian Philosophy in its Development and Completion (2 vols., 1888); The Epistle of St. Paul to the Galatians Explained and Illustrated (1893); Via, Veritas, Vita (Hibbert Lectures for 1894; 1894); The Epistles of Paul to the Thessalonians, Corinthians, Galatians, Romans, and Philippians (1899); Life and Letters of James Martineau (in collaboration with C. B. Upton; 1902); and The Character and Authorship of the Fourth Gospel (1904).