DRUMMOND, HENRY: 1. Apostle of the Catholic Apostolic Church; b. at the Grange, Hampshire (s.w. of London), 1786; d. at Albury (25 m. s.w. of London), Surrey, Feb. 20,1860. He was educated at Harrow, and studied two years in Christ Church, Oxford, but did not take a degree. From 1810 to 1813 he was in Parliament, but failing health compelled him to retire. In 1817 he met Robert Haldane (q.v.) in Geneva and was led by him to support the evangelical Genevan clergy against the Socinian majority, and in 1819 to found the Continental Society, of which he was the mainstay for many years. In 1826 he gathered in his house at Albury a number of clergymen and laymen for a conference upon the prophetic Scriptures. These conferences were continued annually for five years. Out of them came the organization of the Catholic Apostolic Church (q.v.), to the apostolate of which Drummond was called in 1832. The apostles' chapel and chapter-house at Albury were erected by him. From 1847 till his death he was member of Parliament from West Surrey; he was, generally speaking, a Tory of the old school, but was remarkable for the independence of his political position, while at the same time he always supported the budget, as a matter of principle, whatever party might be in power. His son-in-law Lord Lovaine after his death brought out a collection of his Speeches in Parliament and Some Miscellaneous Pamphlets (2 vols., London, 1860); his lectures in the churches have also been published, and Abstract Principles of Revealed Religion (London, 1845).
SAMUEL J. ANDREWS.
Bibliography: A memoir is contained in Lord Lovaine's ed. of his Speeches, ut sup.; Margaret Oliphant, Life of Edward Irving, London, 1865; DNB, xvi. 28-29.
2. Free Church of Scotland; b. at Stirling Aug. 17, 1851; d. at Tunbridge Wells, Kent, Mar. 11, 1897. He studied at Edinburgh University, but left before receiving a degree. In 1870 he began the divinity course of the Free Church at New College, Edinburgh, and also attended the University of Tübingen for a semester in 1873. In 1874-75 he took an active part in the revival work of Moody and Sankey, but in 1875 returned to New College, and two years later was appointed lecturer in natural science at the Free Church College, Glasgow. He was appointed full professor of theology in 1884, and seven months later was ordained to the ministry of the Free Church. He made a visit to the United States in 1879, and in 1882 again assisted Moody in Great Britain. In 1883 he went to Africa for a scientific exploration of Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika for the African Lakes Corporation, returning to Scotland in 1884. He visited the American colleges in 1887, and the Australian in 1890, in the interest of student missions, and in 1893 delivered the Lowell lectures in Boston. Being himself a highly educated man and a winning personality and fired by missionary zeal, he had a great influence upon educated people, and especially upon students. He was a true Students' Apostle, and won many of them to a religious life. His writings had an enormous sale. Of them may be mentioned: Natural Law in the Spiritual World (London, 1883); Tropical Africa (1888); The Greatest Thing in the World and other Addresses (1894) The Ascent of Man (Lowell Lectures; 1894); The Ideal Life and other unpublished Addresses (1897); and The New Evangelism and other Papers (1899).
Bibliography: G. A. Smith, Life of Henry Drummond, London, 1899; H. M. Cecil, Pseudo-Philosophy at the End of the Nineteenth Century, vol. i., ib. 1897; R. A. Watson, Gospels of Yesterday, ib. 1898; T. Hunter Boyd, Henry Drummond; Some Recollections, ib. 1907.