BERTHOLD OF LIVONIA: Early missionary and second bishop among the Livonians. He was abbot of the Cistercian monastery in Lokkum, and was consecrated bishop to succeed Meinhard about 1196 by Hartwig II, bishop of Bremen. After he had failed to win the heathen by mild means with peril of his life, he went to Saxony and returned with a body-guard in 1198. The Livonians gathered and were defeated in battle, but the bishop was slain July 24, 1198. His successor was Albert of Riga (q.v.).