BENZINGER, IMMANUEL (GUSTAV ADOLF): German Orientalist; b. at Stuttgart Feb. 21, 1865. He was educated at the University of Tübingen (Ph.D., 1888; licentiate of theology, 1894), and after a pastorate at Neuenstadt, Württemberg, from 1894 to 1898, was privat-docent for Old Testament theology at the University of Berlin until 1901, when he retired, and has since resided in Palestine. In theology he belongs to the historico-critical school. He has been a member of the Deutscher Paltistinaverein since 1888, editing its journal in 1897-1902, and has also been on the executive committee of the Deutscher Verein zur Erlorschung Paltistinas since 1897. He has written Hebräische Archäolgie (Freiburg, 1894, 2d ed. 1907); Commentar zu den Königsbüchern (1899) and Commentar zu der Chronik (1901), both in the Kurzer Hand-Kommentar zum Allen Testament; and Geschichte des Volkes lsraels (Leipsic,1904). He likewise collaborated with R. J. Hartmann in Palästina (Stuttgart, 1899), and with Frohnmeyer in Bilderatlas zur Bibelkunde (1905), and has edited Baedeker's Paltistina und Syrien since the third edition (1889).