ABIJAH, a-bai'ja (called Abijam in I Kings xiv. 31, xv. 1, 7, 8): Second king of Judah, son of Rehoboam, and, on his mother's side, probably a great grandson of David, since his mother Maachah is called a daughter of Absalom (II Chron. xi. 20; "Abishalom," in I Kings xv. 2). In I Kings xv. 10, however, Maachah, the daughter of Abishalom, appears as mother of Asa; and in II Chron. xiii. 2 the mother of Abijah is called Michaiah, the daughter of Uriel. " Michaiah" here is probably a scribal error for" Maachah," the addition "daughter of Abishalom" in I Kings xv. 10 probably a copyist's mistake; and it is possible that Uriel was son-in-law of Absalom, and Maachah, therefore, his granddaughter. Abijah reigned three years (957-955 B.C. or, according to Kamphausen, 920- 918). The Book of Kings says that he walked in all the sins of his father, which probably means that he allowed idolatrous worship, and adds that the war between Judah and Israel, which followed the division, continued during his reign. According to II Chronicles xiii., Abijah gained some advantages in the war, which, though soon lost, were not unimportant. He may have been in alliance with Tabrimon of Damascus (I Kings xv. 18-19). His history is contained in I Kings xiv. 31-xv. 8, and II Chron. xiii. 1-22. (W. LOTZ.)
According to the more correct chronology Abijah reigned 918-915 BC. J. F. M.
BIBLIOGRAPHY: See under AHAB.